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|Title:||Pyrogens, a polypeptide produces fever by metabolic changes in hypothalamus: Mechanisms and detections.|
|Keywords:||Endotoxins; Fever; Hypothalamus; LAL assay; Lipopolysacharides; Pyrogens|
|Citation:||Prajitha N, Athira SS, Mohanan PV. Pyrogens, a polypeptide produces fever by metabolic changes in hypothalamus: Mechanisms and detections. Immunology Letters. 2018 Dec; 204:38-46.|
|Abstract:||Fever is one of the cardinal symptoms of onset of an infection or inflammation and is the common clinical indicator for medical consultation in mammalian host worldwide. Simply, fever manifested with elevation of body temperature from normal physiological range represents adaptive response of immune system on challenge with an infectious and non-infectious circumstance. Fever usually initiated in the periphery as a result of interaction of immune cells with exogenous or endogenous pyrogens. Peripheral pyrogenic signals gain access to the central nervous system via humoral and neural route. Humoral pathway was initiated with production of pyrogenic cytokines and prostaglandins from immune cells of blood as well as liver, transmitted directly to pre-optic area of hypothalamus through the circumventricular organ of brain. On the other hand an alternative pathway was initiated by the same cytokines indirectly via stimulating the vagal sensory neurons result in pyrogenic fever; so-called neuronal pathway. If the magnitude of pyrogens associated fever is very high, it will lead to severe illness ranging from septic shock to death. So it is necessary to evaluate the presence of pyrogens in implants, medical devices, drugs and biological materials to ensure safety in biomedical applications and therapeutics. Classification, route of administration, mechanism of action and detection of pyrogens and associated products are the major subject of this review.|
|Appears in Collections:||Journal Articles|
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