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Title: Dextran stabilized fullerene soot induced toxicity on alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cells)
Authors: Athira, SS
Biby, ET
Mohanan, PV
Issue Date: Sep-2020
Publisher: Environmental Research.
Citation: Athira SS, Biby ET,. Mohanan PV. Dextran stabilized fullerene soot induced toxicity on alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cells). Environmental Research. 2020;188:10971
Abstract: Fullerene comprises the major allotrope of carbon holding several fruitful potentials to be applied in various industrial and biomedical scenarios. Scientists have acquired large number of data on fullerene research using its derivatives like C60, C70 etc. Nevertheless, a precise focus on fullerene soot nanopaticles and its toxic impacts in living tissue is still behind mainstay even if it represents the crude parent form of all other derivatives. Present study addresses an acute toxicity profiling of fullerene soot nanoparticles in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) as a paradigm of pulmonary exposure. Surface functionalization was given for fullerene soot nanoparticles using dextran polymer as a mean to establish a stable homogenous dispersion (denoted as dFSNPs hereafter). Following functionalization, dFSNPs were characterized for various parameters including size, surface charge, morphology and functional groups using DLS, Zeta potential analysis, TEM and FT-IR measurements respectively. Effective dextran functionalization was evident from the characteristic peaks in FTIR spectra. Cell viability assessed using MTT and NRU assays; both of which showed a dose dependent cytotoxic response. Thymidine incorporation also confirmed similar trend in viability rate. In accordance with literatures, DCFHDA assay confirmed free radical scavenging activity of fullerene nanoparticles. An altered cellular morphology was observed under fluorescent microscope. Sub-cellular functionalities including lysosomal integrity and mitochondrial stability were found to be compromised at highest tested concentration of dFSNPs (160 μg/ml) without any genotoxic impacts within nuclear premises. FACS analysis following Annexin-PI staining confirmed apoptotic cell death. Hence the overall study substantiated dose dependent toxicity of dFSNPs which is likely to occur during pulmonary exposure.
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