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Title: Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticle mediated perturbations in cellular redox balance and the paradigm of autophagy to apoptosis
Authors: Suma, PR
Renjini, AP
Reddy, TS
Ravindran, RR
Anoop Kumar, GV
Chaitali, DD
Paul, W
Laloraya, M
Srinivasula, SM
Bhosale, SV
Jayasree, RS
Keywords: Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticlesAntioxidant systemROSAutophagyLysosomal dysfunctionApoptosis
Issue Date: Oct-2020
Publisher: Free Radical Biology and Medicine
Citation: Suma PR, Renjini AP, Reddy TS, Ravindran RR, Anoop Kumar GV, Chaitali DD, Paul W, Laloraya M, Srinivasula SM, Bhosale SV, Jayasree RS. Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticle mediated perturbations in cellular redox balance and the paradigm of autophagy to apoptosis. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2020 Dec;161:198-211
Abstract: The redox-active transition metals such as copper, iron, chromium, vanadium, and silica are known for its ROS generation via mechanisms such as Haber-Weiss and Fenton-type reactions. Nanoparticles of these metals induce oxidative stress due to acellular factors owing to their small size and more reactive surface area, leading to various cellular responses. The intrinsic enzyme-like activity of nano vanadium has fascinated the scientific community. However, information concerning their cellular uptake and time-dependent induced effects on their cellular organelles and biological activity is lacking. This comprehensive study focuses on understanding the precise molecular interactions of vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles (VnNp) and evaluate their specific “nano” induced effects on MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Understanding the mechanism behind NP-induced ROS generation could help design a model for selective NP induced toxicity, useful for cancer management. The study demonstrated the intracellular persistence of VnNp and insights into its molecular interactions with various organelles and its overall effects at the cellular level. Where triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in 59.6% cell death towards 48 h of treatment and the normal fibroblast cells showed only 15.4% cell death, indicating an inherent anticancer property of VnNp. It acts as an initial reactive oxygen species quencher, by serving itself as an antioxidant, while; it was also found to alter the cellular antioxidant system with prolonged incubation. The VnNp accumulated explicitly in the lysosomes and mitochondria and modulated various cellular processes including impaired lysosomal function, mitochondrial damage, and autophagy. At more extended time points, VnNp influenced cell cycle arrest, inhibited cell migration, and potentiated the onset of apoptosis. Results are indicative of the fact that VnNp selectively induced breast cancer cell death and hence could be developed as a future drug molecule for breast cancer management. This could override the most crucial challenge of chemo-resistance that still remain as the main hurdle to cancer therapy.
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