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Title: Cellular and sub-chronic toxicity of hydroxyapatite porous beads loaded with antibiotic in rabbits, indented for chronic osteomyelitis
Authors: Vandana, U
Akhil, V
Suresh Babu, S
Francis, B
Sabareeswaran, A
Varma, HK
Mohanan, PV
Issue Date: Feb-2022
Publisher: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Citation: Vandana U, Akhil V, Suresh Babu S, Francis B, Sabareeswaran A, Varma HK, Mohanan PV. Cellular and sub-chronic toxicity of hydroxyapatite porous beads loaded with antibiotic in rabbits, indented for chronic osteomyelitis. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2022 Feb;616:121535
Abstract: Bioceramics have emerged as a hopeful remedy for site-specific drug delivery in orthopaedic complications, especially in chronic osteomyelitis. The bioresorbable nature of bioceramic materials shaped them into a versatile class of local antibiotic delivery systems in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Hydroxyapatite (HA) based bioceramics with natural bone mimicking chemical composition are of particular interest due to their excellent biocompatibility, better osteoconductive and osteointegrative properties. Although HA has been widely recognized as an efficient tool for local delivery of antibiotics, information regarding its subchronic systemic toxicity have not been explored yet. Moreover, a detailed investigation of in vivo subchronic systemic toxicity of HA is critical for understanding its biocompatibility and futuristic clinical applications of these materials as novel therapeutic system in its long haul. Evaluation of biocompatibility and sub-chronic systemic toxicity are significant determinants in ensuring biomedical device’s long-term functionality and success. Sub-chronic systemic toxicity allows assessing the potential adverse effects caused by leachable and nanosized wear particles from the device materials under permissible human exposure to the distant organs that are not in direct contact with the devices. In this context, the present study evaluates the sub-chronic systemic toxicity of in-house developed Hydroxyapatite porous beads (HAPB), gentamicin-loaded HAPB (HAPB + G) and vancomycin- loaded HAPB (HAPB + V) through 4 and 26-week muscle implantation in New Zealand white rabbits, as per ISO 10993–6 and ISO 10993–11. Analysis of cellular responses of HAPB towards Human Osteosarcoma (HOS) cell line through MTT assay, direct contact cytotoxicity, live/dead assay based on Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) showed its non-cytotoxic behaviour. Histopathological analysis of muscle tissue, organs like heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, adrenals, intestine, testes, ovaries, and uterus did not reveal any abnormal biological responses. Our study concludes that the HAPB, gentamicin-loaded HAPB (HAPB + G) and vancomycin-loaded HAPB (HAPB + V) are biocompatible and did not induce sub-chronic systemic toxicity and hence satisfies the criteria for regulatory approval of HAs as a plausible candidate for
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