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Title: Anomalous pulmonary venous connection to superior vena cava: Warden technique
Authors: Kottayil, Brijesh P.
Dharan, Baiju S.
Menon, Sabarinath
Bijulal, Sasidharan
Neema, Praveen Kumar
Gopalakrishnan, Shyamkrishnan K.
Jayakumar, Karunakaran
Keywords: Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: Objective: Repair of anomalous pulmonary venous connection (APVC) to superior vena cava (SVC) with internal pericardial patch may be complicated by the obstruction of the SVC or pulmonary veins and sinus node dysfunction. Moreover, the shrinkage of the pericardium may lead to late obstruction. Various techniques are practiced, which have reduced the incidence of obstruction to the venous drainage, but sinus node dysfunction continues to be an issue. We reviewed our experience with the Warden technique, predominantly in children, for various types of APVC to the SVC. Methods: Between 2006 and 2010, 32 patients with anomalous drainage of the pulmonary veins to SVC underwent repair by the Warden technique in our institute. The median age at operation was 4 years (range 3 months-34 years). Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) was present in 28 patients, while four patients had total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) to the SVC, where one or more pulmonary veins joined the SVC separately from the entry of the common chamber. Clinical data, echocardiography and operative details were collected from our database, retrospectively. Results: At a median follow-up of 24 months, there was no mortality. One patient had transient rhythm disturbance. On follow-up, it was revealed that all patients are in sinus rhythm with no evidence of systemic or pulmonary venous obstruction. Conclusion: The Warden technique is a simple and effective surgical option, which should be preferred for patients with anomalous drainage of the pulmonary veins to SVC. Though arrhythmias are rare in the early follow-up, longer follow-up is required to rule out their late development. (C) 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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