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Title: Developing a conceptual model using primary qualitative data to facilitate dietary intervention planning at the household level
Authors: Daivadanam, M
Wahlstrom, R
Ravindran, TKS
Thankappan, KR
Ramanathan, M
Keywords: Conceptual model, Framework analysis, Household decision-making, Health behaviour theories, Trans-theoretical model, Health belief model, Theory of planned behaviour, Kerala, India
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: BMC Public Health
Abstract: Background: Interventions having a strong theoretical basis are more efficacious, providing a strong argument for incorporating theory into intervention planning. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual model to facilitate the planning of dietary intervention strategies at the household level in rural Kerala. Methods: Three focus group discussions and 17 individual interviews were conducted among men and women, aged between 23 and 75 years. An interview guide facilitated the process to understand: 1) feasibility and acceptability of a proposed dietary behaviour change intervention; 2) beliefs about foods, particularly fruits and vegetables; 3) decision-making in households with reference to food choices and access; and 4) to gain insights into the kind of intervention strategies that may be practical at community and household level. The data were analysed using a modified form of qualitative framework analysis, which combined both deductive and inductive reasoning. A priori themes were identified from relevant behaviour change theories using construct definitions, and used to index the meaning units identified from the primary qualitative data. In addition, new themes emerging from the data were included. The associations between the themes were mapped into four main factors and its components, which contributed to construction of the conceptual model. Results: Thirteen of the a priori themes from three behaviour change theories (Trans-theoretical model, Health Belief model and Theory of Planned Behaviour) were confirmed or slightly modified, while four new themes emerged from the data. The conceptual model had four main factors and its components: impact factors (decisional balance, risk perception, attitude); change processes (action-oriented, cognitive); background factors (personal modifiers, societal norms); and overarching factors (accessibility, perceived needs and preferences), built around a three-stage change spiral (pre-contemplation, intention, action). Decisional balance was the strongest in terms of impacting the process of behaviour change, while household efficacy and perceived household cooperation were identified as ‘markers’ for stages-of-change at the household level. Conclusions: This type of framework analysis made it possible to develop a conceptual model that could facilitate the design of intervention strategies to aid a household-level dietary behaviour change process.
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