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Title: Synthesis and characterization of X-ray opaque polycarbonate urethane: Effect of a dihalogenated chain extender on radiopacity and hemocompatibility
Authors: Kiran, S
Joseph, R
Keywords: 6-diisocyanatohexane; blood compatibility; poly(hexamethylene carbonate)diol; polyurethanes; radiopacity
Issue Date: Oct-2014
Publisher: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A.
Citation: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 2014
Abstract: An inherently radiopaque poly(carbonate urethane) containing fluorine and iodine atoms in the polymer chain was synthesized and characterized. Radiopaque polyurethane was synthesized from 1,6-diisocyanatohexane (HDI), poly (hexamethylene carbonate)diol (PHCD) and a newly synthesized chain extender having fluorine and iodine in the molecule, namely, 4,4'-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane-2,2-diyl)bis(2,6-diiodophenol) (IBAF). IBAF monomer imparted radiopacity and improved the hemocompatibility of the resultant polymer. For comparative evaluation, polyurethanes (PU) were synthesized by reacting monomers HDI and PHCD without any chain extender and also by reacting HDI and PHCD along with noniodinated, but fluorine containing, version of the above chain extender, namely, 4,4'-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphenol (BAF). Chain extended PUs showed improved mechanical and thermal properties, and hemocompatibility compared to the nonchain extended PU. Radiopacity measurements by fluoroscopy showed that IBAF incorporated PU of 200 µm thickness had radiopacity equivalent to that of 25% barium sulfate filled noniodinated PU of same thickness and to that of 0.6-mm thick aluminum wedge. In vivo imaging using a rabbit cadaver model showed clearly distinguishable image of IBAF incorporated PU sample. All the PU materials were noncytotoxic to L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Preliminary results obtained from blood-material interaction studies showed that incorporation of fluorinated chain extenders in the PUs resulted in significant reduction in the adhesion of white blood cells onto the PU material surface and also resulted in prolonged partial thromboplastin time. Results suggest that incorporation of fluorine and iodine containing chain extenders would lead to the development PU with improved hemocompatibility and radiopacity
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