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Title: Induction of immunotoxicity and oxidative stress by imidazole on immune cells
Authors: Gayathri, V
Mohanan, PV
Keywords: Imidazole; Splenocytes; T lymphocytes; Cytokines; Oxidative stress; Apoptosis.
Issue Date: Jul-2015
Publisher: Applied Cell Biology
Citation: Gayathri V, Mohanan PV. Induction of immunotoxicity and oxidative stress by imidazole on immune cells. Applied Cell Biology. 2015;4(2):45-55
Abstract: Imidazole is a known irritant to rabbit eye and possesses moderate oral toxicity. However Imidazole toxicity to immune cells if any, is unclear therefore needs to be scientifically evaluated. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the immuno-toxicity properties, if any, of imidazole par- ent compound. The study included assessment of the expression of im- mune modulatory cytokine mediators using real time PCR from the total RNA, isolated from mixed and T lymphocytes. Nitrosative stress was assessed by Nitric oxide formation. Apoptotic potential of imidazole on T lymphocytes using Annexin V assay kit was carried out using flow cytometer. Higher concentration of imidazole (10mg/ml) showed a sig- nificant increase in pro inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1, mono- cyte chemo attractant protein-1, tumour necrosis factor beta, whereas drastic reduction in anti inflammatory cytokine, interleukin -10 was noted. This study also demonstrated that Imidazole (10 mg/ml) induces mixed and T lymphocyte proliferation by DNAsynthesissignificantly. The mRNA expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases 14 gene, inducible Nitric oxide synthase and Bcl-2ñassociated X protein were also signifi- cantly increased (p<0.01). However, lower concentrations of imidazole did not exhibit such effect on both types of cells. Continuous exposure of workers to imidazole used in industries could suppress the bodyís immune system, especially cellular immunity thereby triggering the inflammatory pathway and targeting the p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway. These observations are of interest in view of workers in pesti- cide, pharmaceutical industries
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