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Title: Study of visible light activated polymerisation in BISGMA-TEGDMA monomers with Typw 1 and Type 2 photoinitiators using Raman spectroscopy
Authors: Vaidyanathan, TK
Vaidyanathan, J
Lizymol, PP
Saraswathy, A
Krishnan, KV
Keywords: Type 1 and Type 2 initiators, BisGMA based monomer, % Conversion ,Raman spectroscopy
Issue Date: Jan-2017
Publisher: Dental Materials
Citation: Vaidyanathan TK, Vaidyanathan J, Lizymol PP, Saraswathy A, Krishnan KV. Study of visible light activated polymerisation in BISGMA-TEGDMA monomers with Typw 1 and Type 2 photoinitiators using Raman spectroscopy. Dental Materials. 2017;33:I-II.
Abstract: Objective. The goal of the study was to characterize the efficiency of polymerization of Type 1 and Type 2 initiators for visible light cure of a BisGMA-TEGDMA monomer mixture. Methods. Raman spectroscopy was used to follow conversion during polymerization of a BisGMA-TEGDMA mixture using a Type I photoinitiator diphenyl(2,4,6 dimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO) and a Type II photoinitiator camphorquinone (CQ) and an amine, both initiators at 0.5 wt.%. Different light exposure times and storage times after light curing were used as variables. Results. There was a significant difference between the relative exposure times of TPO and CQ/amine (5 s for TPO vs. 20 s for CQ/Amine) for attaining maximum % conversion (78% in TPO vs. 65% in CQ/Amine). There was also a significant difference in the effect of storage time (no effect in TPO vs. increased % conversion with CQ/Amine). These effects are attributed to differences in the rate controlling steps of free radical generation in Type 1/Type 2 initiators, and the potential for radiative and non-radiative energy losses in CQ/Amine in its excited state. Conclusions. The results confirm that photo-polymerization of BisGMA is much more efficient with TPO than with CQ/amine. Both exposure and storage times were important variables in CQ/amine, but not in TPO. Significance. TPO photolysis generates significantly more free radicals with potentially very little radiative and non-radiative energy loss in comparison with CQ/amine. The resulting improved monomer conversion is of major importance in resisting chemical and mechanical degradation and preventing toxicological adverse effects
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