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Title: Preparation and in vitro evaluation of primaquine-conjugated gum arabic microspheres
Authors: Nishi, KK
Jayakrishnan, A
Keywords: Biological Evaluation
Issue Date: 2004
Citation: BIOMACROMOLECULES. 5; 4; 1489-1495
Abstract: Gum arabic, a branched polysaccharide, was oxidized using periodate to generate reactive aldehyde groups on the biopolymer. Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, was covalently coupled onto oxidized gum arabic via an imine bond and simultaneously fabricated into microspheres of less than 2 mum in size by heat denaturation in a reverse emulsion of 1: 1 light paraffin oil and toluene stabilized by sorbitan sesquioleate as the surfactant. The covalent binding of primaquine to the polysaccharide using the clinically used water-soluble form of the drug primaquine phosphate was achieved in the presence of borate buffer of pH 11. Up to 35% of the drug could be bound to the polymer backbone depending on the concentration of the drug employed initially and the degree of oxidation of the polysaccharide. Interestingly, both the aliphatic and the hindered aromatic amino groups of primaquine were found to react with the aldehyde functions through Schiff base formation leading to cross-linking of the polysaccharide with the drug itself. In vitro release of the drug from microspheres into phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4, 0.1 M) at 37 degreesC showed that the release of primaquine from the matrix was slow, although gradually increased with time. The maximum released was below 50% of the drug payload even after 10 days. Release into simulated gastric and intestinal fluids was faster compared to the release in PBS due to rapid hydrolysis of the Schiff's linkage in the gastric fluid. A possible reason for the poor hydrolytic susceptibility of the Schiff's linkage is suggested based on the unequal reactivity of the amino groups on primaquine and its relevance in possible therapeutic application of this polymer-drug conjugate discussed.
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