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|Title:||Alteration of myocardial mechanics in marginal magnesium deficiency|
|Citation:||MAGNESIUM RESEARCH. 15; 40972; 287-306|
|Abstract:||Magnesium has attracted attention as an essential element with diverse roles in the regulation of cardiac contraction. Chronic suboptimal intake of the element results in hypomagnesaemia. Experimental and clinical studies indicate the possibility of a marginal decrease in myocardial magnesium compared to those with sufficient intake. Reduction in extracellular magnesium affects myocardial excitability and contractility predominantly, by modulation of the levels of other ions that have an influence on cardiac mechanics. Majority of the in vitro experiments in isolated ventricular tissue or myocytes record an inverse relation between Mg concentration and inotropic response, mediated probably by enhanced influx of Ca2+ promoting sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ release. Paradoxically myocardial contractility is usually compromised in animals on Mg deficient diet or on perfusion of whole heart with low Mg (< 0.5 mM) buffer. In the whole animal or organ, magnesium deficiency induced coronary vasospasm, defective energy metabolism and excessive free radical generation may be important variables acting in concert or independently to affect myocardial function. Electrical excitability is enhanced in magnesium deficiency, and arrhythmic changes are presumed to be mediated by disturbance in K+ homeostasis. Magnesium deficiency has not received the attention it deserves probably due to absence of clinical symptoms.Magnesium deficiency concomitant with stress may be of clinical significance, leading to arrhythmic, hemodynamic and ischaemic changes in the heart. Chronic magnesium deficiency is accompanied by increased free radical generation. Free radicals are known to influence myocardial excitability and contractility. Physiologic and pathologic stress also promotes free radical generation. The additive action of free radical generation in magnesium deficiency and any form of stress may be one of the reasons for enhanced sensitivity to stress in magnesium deficiency. Clinical and experimental data on the cardiac consequences of marginal magnesium deficiency being limited, a number of factors need experimental validation. For example- the extent of change in total and ionized magnesium in the serum and heart, mechanical response of the myocardium to decrease of total and ionized magnesium in the intra- and extracellular milieu; the extent of free radical generation in magnesium deficiency and the cardiac consequence; and also the additive effect of magnesium deficiency and different forms of stress.|
|Appears in Collections:||Journal Articles|
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