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Title: Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in the development of arteriovenous malformations in the brain
Authors: Thomas, JM
Surendran, S
Abraham, M
Rajavelu, A
Kartha, CC
Keywords: Oncology
Issue Date: 2016
Citation: 8 ,;-
Abstract: Vascular malformations are developmental congenital abnormalities of the vascular system which may involve any segment of the vascular tree such as capillaries, veins, arteries, or lymphatics. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital vascular lesions, initially described as "erectile tumors," characterized by atypical aggregation of dilated arteries and veins. They may occur in any part of the body, including the brain, heart, liver, and skin. Severe clinical manifestations occur only in the brain. There is absence of normal vascular structure at the subarteriolar level and dearth of capillary bed resulting in aberrant arteriovenous shunting. The causative factor and pathogenic mechanisms of AVMs are unknown. Importantly, no marker proteins have been identified for AVM. AVM is a high flow vascular malformation and is considered to develop because of variability in the hemodynamic forces of blood flow. Altered local hemodynamics in the blood vessels can affect cellular metabolism and may trigger epigenetic factors of the endothelial cell. The genes that are recognized to be associated with AVM might be modulated by various epigenetic factors. We propose that AVMs result from a series of changes in the DNA methylation and histone modifications in the genes connected to vascular development. Aberrant epigenetic modifications in the genome of endothelial cells may drive the artery or vein to an aberrant phenotype. This review focuses on the molecular pathways of arterial and venous development and discusses the role of hemodynamic forces in the development of AVM and possible link between hemodynamic forces and epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of AVM.
URI: 10.1186/s13148-016-0248-8
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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