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Environmental impact of microplastics and potential health hazards
(Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 2024-06) Megha, KB; Anvitha, D; Parvathi, S; Neeraj, A; Sonia, J; Mohanan, PV
Microscopic plastic (microplastic) pollutants threaten the earth’s biodiversity and ecosystems. As a result of the progressive fragmentation of oversized plastic containers and products or manufacturing in small sizes, microplastics (particles of a diameter of 5 mm with no lower limit) are used in medicines, personal care products, and industry. The incidence of microplastics is found everywhere in the air, marine waters, land, and even food that humans and animals consume. One of the greatest concerns is the permanent damage that is created by plastic waste to our fragile ecosystem. The impossibility of the complete removal of all microplastic contamination from the oceans is one of the principal tasks of our governing body, research scientists, and individuals. Implementing the necessary measures to reduce the levels of plastic consumption is the only way to protect our environment. Cutting off the plastic flow is the key remedy to reducing waste and pollution, and such an approach could show immense significance. This review offers a comprehensive exploration of the various aspects of microplastics, encompassing their composition, types, properties, origins, health risks, and environmental impacts. Furthermore, it delves into strategies for comprehending the dynamics of microplastics within oceanic ecosystems, with a focus on averting their integration into every tier of the food chain.
Nanoarchitectonics of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: A platform for image guided photodynamic therapy of hypoxic tumor
(Applied Materials Today, 2024-06) Resmi, AN; Sivaselvam, S; Papasouli, E; Kunnumpurathu, J; Praveen, CS; Koukaras, EN; Rerat, M; Karamanis, P; Jayasree, RS
Metal nanoclusters are atomically precise materials comprising metal core of few atoms exhibiting unique photoluminescence properties, unlike their bigger counterparts. Some metal nanocluster with ligand-to-metal charge transfer, long-lived excited state and excited triplet state contribute to inherent photosensitizing (PS) property. However, the therapeutic efficacy of PDT is hindered by the insufficient oxygen supply (O2) in tumor microenvironment. In the present work, cysteine-capped gold nanocluster (AuC) are studied for their unique molecular architecture for PS efficiency. The co-existence of monodispersed and self-assembled structures contribute to the photoluminescence from the quantum confinement of electronic states and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) based PS property, respectively. In-silico model was performed to study the interaction of cysteine to gold cluster, its ground and excited-state properties and the charge transfer mechanism. The AuC as PS generates cytotoxic radicals in both Type I and Type II photodynamic pathways and the dominant radical species involved were elucidated by EPR spectroscopy. In vitro analysis in HeLa cells showed excellent biocompatibility and bioimaging properties. The intracellular ROS production and Live/Dead assay confirmed the generation of ROS in HeLa cells upon laser irradiation. The image-guided photodynamic property with synergistic Type I and Type II PDT reactions of AuC promises its potential application in cancer therapy in both hypoxic and normoxic conditions
Insights into cellular initeractions of characterised Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide on L929 cells
(Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2024-09) Megha, KB; Aneeta, S; .Joseph, X; Abey, J; Baiju. GN; Mohanan, PV
Layered double hydroxides are members of an anionic clay family, characterised by unique two-dimensional layered structures and lend versatility in various applications. These biocompatible compounds have the potential to get intercalated with biological compounds and physico-chemically adsorbed onto organic molecules. Thus, making them important candidates for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes. This study aims to synthesise, characterise and investigate the cellular toxicity interactions of Mg–Al LDH towards the mouse fibroblast L929 cell line. The Mg–Al LDH was synthesized by a meticulous process of co-precipitation followed by the hydrothermal method to ensure a well-defined and stable structure for suitable biological application. Characterisation techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering, Zeta potential, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to provide deeper insights into the physiochemical properties and structural integrity of the synthesized Mg–Al LDH. The investigation of cellular interactions with the L929 fibroblast cell line served to assess the biocompatibility and potential cytotoxic effects of Mg–Al LDH. This was observed by assessing the morphological changes and evaluating the cytotoxic effects of Mg–Al LDH by utilising various techniques like phase contrast microscopy, fluorescent staining, and Giemsa staining. The cellular metabolic activity was assessed by MTT assay, and the subcellular lysosomal alteration was examined using the fluorescent staining method by the acridine orange staining. The dose-dependent response observed in the cellular interaction underscores the importance of dosage considerations for potential biomedical applications. By elucidating the dose-response relationship, this study contributes valuable information for the safe and effective usage of LDH in biomedical contexts.
Low Reynolds number pressure-flow analysis across a valve: Comparison between three-point and multipoint gap functions with CFD results
(NAFEMS International Journal of CFD Case Studies, 2023-11) Gopinathan, A; Vipin Dev, V; Jithu Raj, R; Subhash Kumar, MS; Sukanya, LJ; Muraleedharan, CV
The pressure-flow characteristics of a valve that are used in major medical and industrial applications depend on the structural properties of the valve components, properties of the fluid flowing across the valve as well as the profile of the bounding region ensured by the valve-plug (moving part of the valve) and valve-seating (fixed inlet port of valve). The pressure-flow behaviour is an important aspect as far as the design of the valve is considered. The pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the valve at a particular flow rate could either be estimated through the method of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or mathematical analytical methods. An analytical model is being developed derived from the Navier Stokes equation in which the boundary profile equations contributed by valve-plug and valve-seating along with fluid properties were being used along with the fluid parameters. As part of the exercise, the gap function which is variation in distance between the plug and seating profile along the flow direction is derived. Two different methods which are a three-point method of circular arc extraction and multipoint method of polynomial curve extraction have been discussed in this paper for obtaining the gap function.